An overview of diabetic ketoacidosis and its treatment
Many people all around the world are suffering from diabetes and Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a condition that can lead to coma and sometimes even death. So, it’s very important to diagnose this disease to start the treatment. Thus, in this post, we are giving you an overview of Diabetic Ketoacidosis treatment, diagnosis, and a lot more. Moreover, there are various causes, symptoms of Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) that you can read below in the article.
# Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
Since, the year 1970, Diabetic Ketoacidosis has been the main cause behind the 2% death rates of diabetic patients. This can occur in patients suffering from both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Ketoacidosis develops when the human body doesn’t have sufficient insulin for allowing blood sugar to go into the cells to use as energy. Then, ketones, acidic substances are released by the liver into the blood flow. When ketones are produced fast, then they can build up to risky levels in your body.
# Different Symptoms of Diabetic Ketoacidosis
The symptoms of Diabetic ketoacidosis may appear quickly and can be the first warning signs of having diabetes. So, different symptoms of Diabetic Ketoacidosis are as follows:
Early symptoms of DKA include:
- Excessive thirst
- Urinating a lot more than normal
If untreated, then more severe symptoms can
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be seen. These are as follows:
- Dry skin
- Dry mouth
- Fast and deep breathing
- Flushed face
- Nausea or vomiting
- Fruity-smelling breath
- Feeling tired all the time
- Muscle stiffness or pain
- Stomach pain
- High blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia)
# Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Causes and various Risk factors
The main reason behind the development of DKA is not managing diabetes seriously. The body doesn’t have enough insulin and for energy r can’t use the sugar. So, it use fat and that burning fat makes acids which are called Ketones. If the process continues then it can build up in your blood that changes the chemical balance of blood and throw off the whole system. People who have type 1 diabetes are at high risk for DKA as their bodies don’t produce any insulin and blood sugar level increases. Hence, in that situation, there is a need for proper Diabetic Ketoacidosis treatment.
Moreover, the ketones in the body rise because of the following reasons:
- When a meal is missed
- Have an insulin reaction
- Sick or stressed
- Have not injected sufficient insulin
- Hormone disorders
- Usage of corticosteroids
- Alcohol consumption
- Using medicines like diuretics
- Infection of the pancreas- Pancreatitis
- Pneumonia or urinary tract infection
If left untreated then DKA can also lead to coma and death too. Besides, some of the other risk factors for DKA mainly include:
- Stomach illness
- Heart disease, like heart attack
- Blood clot in lungs
- Recent stroke
- Serious illness or trauma
# Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Diagnosis
Doctors ask for Diabetic Ketoacidosis in various cases that are given below:
- When the blood sugar level is more than 250 mg/dL
- The feeling of frequent urination
- Having symptoms like feeling really thirsty and dry mouth
- In case the diabetic patient is pregnant
- Ketones are in the range of 1.0 – 3.0 or more than 3.0 for a longer time period.
For diagnosing Diabetic Ketoacidosis diseases, generally, doctors ask for blood tests and urine tests too.
Through blood tests they came to know about the following:
- When there is a lack of insulin in the diabetic patient then the glucose levels will be high.
- Ketones will begin building up in the blood because of the breakdown of fats for energy.
- If ketone is present in the body in excess then it makes the blood acidic. So, a test shows the level of blood acidity in the body.
Through, Urine test, an analysis is made to know the levels of ketones in the body. Additionally, for determining the possibility of Diabetic Ketoacidosis complications, doctors many times also suggest some more tests. These include:
- X-ray of chest to check of various infections such as pneumonia.
- Arterial blood gas to know the blood acidity in the body.
- Basic blood work for checking metabolic function.
# Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment
After knowing all the symptoms and causes of DKA it’s important to know about Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment. If anyone suffering from this disease and doesn’t opt for its treatment then it results in coma and possibly even death also. S0, the treatment of this disease mainly includes balancing blood sugar and insulin levels.
Having a history of Diabetes Ketoacidosis may impact the premiums you pay for health and life insurance. Melissa Thompson of Diabetes 365 states ” applicants with history of Diabetes Ketoacidosis can expect to pay higher rates on insurance products, as they’ll be viewed as a higher risk. Life insurance with diabetes may be 25% to 40% more expensive compared to a non-diabetic.”
In addition to this, if someone is diagnosed with Diabetic Ketoacidosis but not diagnosed with diabetes, then the doctor creates a diabetes treatment plan. This plan work to keep Diabetic ketoacidosis from recurring in the body. Moreover, Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment is as follows:
- Fluid Replacement- In this type of treatment, the doctors restore the levels of extracellular fluid by giving you external fluids. The external fluids are given to the patients through an IV (Intravenous Injections).
- Insulin therapy- Insulin is given to the patient till the blood sugar level falls less than 240 mg/dL. When the level of blood sugar comes down in an acceptable range then doctors help the patient in avoiding Diabetic Ketoacidosis in the future.
- Electrolyte replacement Treatment- When the insulin level in the body is very low then electrolytes also become low. So, electrolytes therapy is used which is done through an IV. Moreover, the electrolytes are electrically charged minerals that help the human body, the heart, and nerves function in a proper way.
# Final Words
No, doubt Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment is very helpful, but, it’s equally important to prevent yourself from this disease. To prevent DKA from happening again a patient should control the blood sugar level efficiently. Also, patients should take their medicines as directed by the doctor, drink lots of water, do physical activity or exercise, and manage their insulin dose with help from a doctor. Thus, we hope that this post will certainly help you in gaining knowledge regarding Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment, causes, diagnosis, and others.