The field of science that deals with studying structures, physical and chemical properties of a particular material substance are termed chemistry. Though chemistry is an interesting field of study, some denotations need to be understood to make the learning of the subject easier and interesting.
It is required for us to know that all gases, liquids, and solids are not the same and vary in terms of their composition. This is why the classification of the matter is highly required.
Chemistry is that particular branch of science that deals with the properties, composition, and structure of the compounds and elements, along with how they may change and the amount of energy emitted, released, or absorbed when they change.
So, intending to proceed further, we should know what element means and Electronic Configuration of 1 to 30 Elements.
What is an element?
The substance is categorised based on its atomic number and which is pure or a raw chemical consisting of one or more types of atom. It is considered an element or it can also be defined as a substance that can be broken down into other substances.
There are many types of elements each possessing a hundred types of atoms, the universe is full of elements that contain atoms of one or more elements. In the periodic table, they are further classified and grouped as :
- Non- metals
Now coming to what electronic configuration means :
The distribution of electrons of an atom in its orbitals as per the by-laws is termed electronic configuration. Every element has a fixed distribution and has a definite number of protons. The number of protons equals the number of electrons in an atom.
In a neutral state, it can be termed that an atomic number of the element equals the number of electrons. The characteristic feature of an atom is its atomic number. The physical and chemical properties are dependent on the unique distribution of electrons along with their atomic orbitals. Here arises the need to understand what the electronic configuration means with respect to all the elements.
Before understanding the electronic configuration, we need to understand the basic components, i.e. the shells, subshells, and orbitals. Within the atomic orbitals, the process of filling and distribution of electrons occurs.
A different number of orbitals are present for different subshells, and many subshells represent a shell.
The principal quantum number, ‘n’ which is the designated value of each shell. So, for 1st shell n=1, for 2nd shell n=2, fo 3rd shell n=3, and it follows on.
Here, n = 1 2 3 4
Shell = K L M N
The value of principal quantum number equals the number of subshells in shell, and each subshell is designated with a value which is called the Azimuthal Quantum number, ‘I’ for example, 1st shell, n equals 1, so the number of a possible nutshell is just 1 and value for ‘I’ is 0, similarly for 2nd shell, n=2, so the subshell number is 2, and the value for ‘I’ are 0 and 1
The symbol used for subshell = s, p, d, f, g.
The electronic configuration constitutes the number of electrons in each subshell surrounding the nucleus of the atom. The nomenclature of the orbitals are as s,p,d, and f and the maximum number of electrons present in these orbitals are 2,6,10, 10, and 14.
Aufbau’s principle is used while writing the electronic configuration along with Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule.
- Aufbau’s Principle –
According to Aufbau’s principle, the shells are filled with electrons in the given order of energy levels: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 4d, 5d, 6p,7s, 5f, 6d, 7p, etc.
- Pauli’s exclusion principle –
Paulis exclusion principle states that all four quantum numbers cannot be the same for the two electrons of an atom. The two electrons have different spins, and the capacity of each orbital is to hold two electrons. This states that one electron is a spin-up electron while the other has to be a spin-down electron.
- Hund’s rule –
Hund’s rule is an additional description of Aufbau’s principle; it further explains Aufbau’s principle concepts. In Aufbau’s principle, the electrons are filled in orbitals established on the energy levels from lowest to highest.
However, according to Hund’s rule, every orbital is partially filled before undergoing pairing of electrons, resulting in all the single filled electrons having the same spin to ensure the stability of the orbital.
Some points are very necessary during the study of the electronic configuration, and these points must be kept in mind :
- The energy levels in electrons from lowest to highest affect their arrangement, and the electrons are always arranged in the increasing energy levels in ascending order.
- In determining the electronic configuration of an element, the atomic number plays an important role.
- To understand the location of electrons in a particular element, the electronic configuration of an element is used.
- For understanding the valency of an element, the electronic configuration of an atom is useful, which also helps consider the element’s reactivity.
- The interpretation of atomic spectra is also done with the help of electronic configuration.
- The most stable gases like neon, argon, helium, which have filled the outermost electrons, are inert gases because their valence shells are filled.
- There are exceptions like copper and chromium, where the element fills the 3d- orbitals first instead of filling the 4s orbital.
|Name of The element||Chemical symbol||Atomic number||Electronic configuration|
|Boron||B||5||1s2 2s2 2p1|
|Carbon||C||6||1s2 2s2 2p2|
|Nitrogen||N||7||1s2 2s2 2p3|
|Oxygen||O||8||1s2 2s2 2p4|
|Fluorine||F||9||1s2 2s2 2p5|
|Neon||Ne||10||1s2 2s2 2p6|
|Aluminium||Al||13||[Ne] 3s2 3p1|
|Silicon||Si||14||[Ne] 3s2 3p2|
|Phosphorus||P||15||[Ne] 3s2 3p3|
|Sulfur||S||16||[Ne] 3s2 3p4|
|Chlorine||Cl||17||[Ne] 3s2 3p5|
|Argon||Ar||18||[Ne] 3s2 3p6|
|Scandium||Sc||21||[Ar] 3d1 4s2|
|Titanium||Ti||22||[Ar] 3d2 4s2|
|Vanadium||V||23||[Ar] 3d3 4s2|
|Chromium||Cr||24||[Ar] 3d5 4s1|
|Manganese||Mg||25||[Ar] 3d5 4s2|
|Iron||Fe||26||[Ar] 3d6 4s2|
|Cobalt||Co||27||[Ar] 3d7 4s2|
|Nickle||Ni||28||[Ar] 3d8 4s2|
|Copper||Cu||29||[Ar] 3d10 4s1|
|Zinc||Zn||30||[Ar] 3d10 4s2|
We hope now you have a clear idea regarding the Electronic Configuration of the first 30 elements.